||A basaltic lava with a rough, jagged surface.
||A stony meteorite, coarsely crystallized, with sizablefragments
of various minerals visible to the naked eye.
||John Couch Adams (1819-1892) English astronomer. One of the
discoverers of the planet Neptune.
||In Native American traditions from Mexico and from the Arctic,"Moon"
(Wife of the Sun) and "The Mother" (Goddess of Childbirth),respectively.
||The ratio of the amount of solar radiation reflected from
anobject to the total amount incident upon it.
||Louisa May Alcott (1832-1888) American author.
||The measurement of elevation or altitude.
||A type of igneous rock composed almost entirely of feldspar,a
group of minerals that make up about 60% of the Earth's crust.
|antipodal point --
||The opposite point with respect to any given point.
||One of the twelve Greek Olympian gods. Goddess of Love (Romanname,
Venus), daughter of Zeus and Dione .
||In Greek mythology, one of the twelve Olympian gods. God
of prophecy, healing, archery, music, youth, plastic arts, science
||Spider or cobweblike feature on the surface of Venus, typically
having a diameter of about 100-km and a central volcanic structure
surrounded by a complex network of lineaments.
||Curved or bent.
||In Alexander Pope's poem "The Rape of the Lock",
a spirit of the air, chief of the sylphs.
||One of many small rocky bodies orbiting the Sun; a concentration
of these bodies makes up the Asteroid Belt between Mars and Jupiter.
||In Norse mythology, a giantess, mother of Heimdall.
||In Greek mythology, brother of Prometheus and grandfather
of Hermes(Mercury). Condemned to stand forever supporting the
heavens on hisshoulders. The Atlantic Ocean is named for him.
||In Egyptian mythology, goddess of wealth and abundance.
||Emily Balch (1867-1961) American economist, Nobel Laureate.
||Clara Barton (1821-1912) Founder of American Red Cross.
||Fine-grained igneous rock (rich in mafic minerals) that has
erupted onto the surface.
||A depressed area with no surface outlet.
||Continuous solid rock that underlies regolith and is exposed
||Coarse-grained rock composed of angular fragments of pre-existingrock.
||A large volcanic depression at the summit of a volcano, caused
bycollapse or explosion.
||In Greek mythology, a nymph, follower of Artemis. Zeus wanted
towoo her, and so disguised himself as Artemis and seduced her.
To hide her from his jealous wife Hera, Zeus changed Callisto
into a bear.
||Candor Chasma - from the Latin candor, meaning "blaze"
or "thewhite" from its appearance.
||Rachel Carson (1907-1964) American biologist and author.
||Gian Domenico Cassini (1625-1712) Astronomer born in Italy,
later a naturalized French citizen. Discovered four of Saturn's
satellites, observed a dark division in Saturn's ring (the Cassini
||In Greek mythology, a being with the head, arms, and torso
of a man, and the body and legs of a horse. The personification
of wisdom andbeastliness: the two natures of humankind.
||In Greek mythology, the three-headed dog that guards the
entrance to the underworld.
||In Greek mythology, ferryman of the River Styx, who carried
the dead to the underworld. Each dead person was buried with
a coin in his mouthor on his eyelids to pay for the crossing.
||A large canyon.
||A stony meteorite, composed of finely crystallized material.
||A roughly spherical region of diffuse gas which surrounds
the nucleus of a comet. Together, the coma and the nucleus form
the comet's head.
||A small celestial body composed at least partially of ices.
Comets either orbit the Sun or pass through the Solar System
on hyperbolic orbital paths .
||In William Shakespeare's King Lear, the youngest daughter
of the king.
||A circular to elongate feature which is surrounded by multiple
concentric ridges. Coronae are thought to be formed by hot spots.
||An approximately circular depression, sometimes surrounded
by a raised rim. Craters are typically formed by explosion during
||The outermost layer of the lithosphere.
||Shaped like a cusp; a sharp projection of material.
||In Greek mythology, a legendary being that lived on Mount
||The greatest of the goddesses of ancient Ireland.
||In Greek mythology, a son of Ares (Mars) who, with brother
Phobos, was a constant companion to his father.
||Philistine fertility goddess.
||In Greek mythology, the mother of Aphrodite, and daughter
||A general term for all rock debris transported from one place
and deposited in another, and distinguished from solid bedrock.
||In Norse mythology, a giantess.
||Material thrown out of a volcano or impact crater.
||In Greek and Roman mythology, a giant, son of Titan and Gaea.
Buried by an angry Zeus under Mount Etna. When the giant hisses
and thrusts out his fiery tongue, Mount Etna erupts.
||Johann Franz Encke (1791-1865) German astronomer at the Seeberg
Observatory, Switzerland. Determined period of the comet discovered
by Pons and showed it to be identical with comets of other years.
||A long, more or less continuous cliff or relatively steep
slope facing in one general direction, produced by erosion or
||In Greek mythology, a mistress of Zeus to whom he appeared
as a gentle white heifer. Zeus persuaded her to take a ride on
his back, and then he carried her away across the sea.
||A fracture or zone of fractures in a planet's crust, accompanied
by displacement of the opposing sides.
||A group of rock-forming minerals that make up about 60% of
the Earth's crust.
||In Roman mythology, goddess of fortune, chance and luck.
||Galileo Galilei (1564-1642) Italian mathematician, astronomer,
and physicist. First to use a telescope to observe the skies.
||Johann Gottfried Galle (1812-1910) German astronomer who
discovered the crepe ring of Saturn (1838) and was a co-discoverer
of Neptune (1846).
||In Greek mythology, a beautiful Trojan boy, son of Tros and
Calirrhoe. Befriended by Zeus and made cupbearer to the Olympian
||Russian resort and spa near Yalta, Crimea, where Leo Tolstoy
||The study of the external structure, form, and arrangement
of rocks in relation to the development of landforms.
||A type of hot spring that intermittently erupts jets of material.
||Giotto di Bondone (1267?-1337) Italian medieval painter,
architect, and sculptor.
||A long, relatively depressed crustal unit or block that is
bounded by faults along its sides; a trough.
||One of the primary goddesses of the Akkadian and Babylonian
peoples. The mother-goddess and great physician, she had the
power to inflict as well as cure disease.
||John Hadley (1682-1744) English mathematician and inventor.
Built first serviceable reflecting telescope and invented an
improved quadrant known as Hadley's quadrant.
||Edmond Halley (1656-1742) English astronomer. In 1758, predicted
accurately the return of a comet previously observed in 1531,
1607, 1682. The body was subsequently named Halley's Comet.
||The Greek name for Greece.
||Sir William Herschel (1738-1822). British astronomer. Built
reflecting telescope of superior quality and with it discovered
planet Uranus . Discovered satellites of Uranus and of Saturn.
||In Greek mythology, one of the twelve Olympian gods. Sister
of Zeus and goddess of the hearth and home (Roman name, Vesta).
||Edwin Powell Hubble (1889-1953) American astronomer known
for seminal work in modern cosmology.
||Uneven; describing a terrain abounding in irregular knolls,
mounds, or other small elevations.
||Mare Humorum - Latin for "Sea of Humors" or "Sea
||In Greek mythology, a Titan, son of Uranus and Gaea. Husband
of Theia and father of Eos (the Dawn). A handsome wanderer, his
name is said to signify height or superiority.
||In Greek mythology, a son of Uranus and Gaea. Father of Atlas,
Epimetheus, Menoetius, and Prometheus.
||In Greek mythology, the mountain on Crete where Zeus spent
|igneous rock --
||Rock solidified from a molten state.
||Mare Imbrium - Latin for "Sea of Rains".
||In William Shakespeare's Macbeth, the location in Scotland
of Macbeth's castle.
||In Greek mythology, a young woman seduced by Zeus, who then
transformed her into a heifer to protect her from his jealous
||In Babylonian mythology, goddess of love and war. Ruler of
the Moon, as well as the morning and evening stars (alternate
names for the planet Venus).
||A Greek island, home of Odysseus.
||Of or relating to the planet Jupiter.
||Planet fifth in order from the sun. In Roman mythology, ruler
of the gods. (Greek name, Zeus).
||John F. Kennedy (1917-1963) 35th president of the United
States. Called on NASA to put an astronaut on the moon within
the decade of the 1960's, a feat that was achieved. Died by assassination
in November, 1963.
||Gerard Peter Kuiper (1905-1973) American astronomer born
in The Netherlands. Studied the origin of the solar system, and
||A word meaning both "woman" and "goddess"
in the area of Lycia in Asia Minor.
||In Indian mythology, the goddess of all forms of wealth.
The reverence for cows in Hindu India is based on worship of
this goddess, as in that tradition cows are a representation
||In Virgil's Aeneid, a beautiful woman who became the wife
of Aeneus. Personification of earth's fertility.
||Robert E. Lee (1807-1870) American Soldier. General in chief
of all Confederate armies during the Civil War. Surrendered to
Federal forces in April, 1865.
||Urbain Jean Joseph Le Verrier (1811-1877) French astronomer
who performed the calculations that predicted the existence of
the planet Neptune.
||The outer edge of a lunar or planetary disk.
||Abraham Lincoln (1809-1865) Sixteenth president of the United
States. Commander in Chief of Federal forces during the Civil
War. Five days after the war's end Lincoln was shot. He died
the following day.
||A linear topographic feature, such as a fault line, aligned
volcanoes, or straight stream course.
||In Scandinavian mythology, a mischievous trickster, thief
||Ferdinand Magellan (1480-1521) Portuguese navigator whose
ship completed the first circumnavigation of the Earth.
||Molten rock material (liquids and gases).
||a region of a planet's atmosphere that is dominated by the
planet's magnetic field so that charged particles are trapped
||The main bulk of a planet between the crust and the core;
on Earth, the mantle ranges from about 40 to 2,900 kilometers
(25 to 1800 miles) below the surface.
||A dark, low-lying lunar plain, filled to some depth with
||Planet fourth in order from the sun. In Roman mythology,
god of war and discord (Greek name, Ares).
||A massive topographical feature, commonly formed of rocks
more rigid than those of its surroundings.
||Margaret Mead (1901-1978) American anthropologist, author
and lecturer on contemporary social issues.
||The planet closest to the sun. In Roman mythology, the fleet-footed
messenger god and escort of dead souls to the underworld (Greek
||A stony or metallic object from interplanetary space that
impacts a planetary surface.
||In Greek mythology, a giant.
||In William Shakespeare's The Tempest, the second daughter
of Prospero the magician.
||The study of structure or form.
||In ancient Phoenicia, a moon goddess who presided over fertility
||Planet eighth in order from the sun. In Roman mythology,
god of the sea (Greek name, Poseidon).
||The frozen core of a comet which contains almost the entire
cometary mass and is located in the comet's head.
||In William Shakespeare's A Midsummer Night's Dream, the king
of the fairies.
||In Greek mythology, the mountain that is home to the gods.
||In the mythology of the Native American Seneca and Iroquois
people, a corn or wheat goddess; the daughter of Nokomis.
||In William Shakespeare's Hamlet, the daughter of Polonius
and deserted lover of Hamlet.
||In the Bible, a land to which King Solomon sent a naval expedition.
Considered to be the eastern extremity of the know world. Thought
to be modern Ethiopia, or possibly India.
||Latin for "Eastern".
||In Finnish mythology, a wild, ill-humored spirit who wanders
through the forests looking for trespassers to tickle to death.
||Oxia Palus - from the Latin, an oasis on the Oxus Canal,
which flowed into the Oxianus Lacus (the modern-day Sea of Aral).
||A basaltic lava with a smooth, undulating surface.
||The point in the path of a planet, asteroid, comet, or other
body that is closest to the sun.
||In Greek mythology, the son of Poseidon. Personification
of the shifting winds and moods of the sea.
||In Greek mythology, a son of Ares (Mars) who, with brother
Deimos, was a constant companion to his father.
||Any comparatively flat area of great extent or elevation.
||A buoyant mass of hot, partially molten mantle material that
rises to the base of the lithosphere.
||Planet ninth in order, and farthest, from the sun. In Greek
mythology, god of the dead and the underworld.
||Oceanus Procellarum - from the Latin "Ocean of Storms".
||A Greek mythological hero who gave humankind fire.
||Any solid material lying on top of bedrock, including soil
and rock fragments.
||The maximum regional difference in elevation.
||In Greek mythology, mother of Zeus and wife of Cronos the
||A valley formed at a divergence zone or other area of extension.
||One of several trenchlike, or cracklike valleys up to several
hundred km long and 1-2 km wide commonly occurring on the Moon's
||Sacajawea (Bird Woman) (1786?-1812) Native American who accompanied
and guided the Lewis and Clark expedition from the Missouri River
to the Pacific Ocean and back.
||In Phoenician mythology, goddess of commerce and travel,
and messenger of the gods.
||Planet sixth in order from the sun. In Roman mythology, god
of agriculture, and father of Jupiter (Greek name, Cronos).
||A cliff or steep slope of some extent that may form a marked
||Giovanni Virginio Schiaparelli (1835-1910). Italian astronomer
at the Milan Observatory who reported markings on Mars which
he called "canali".
||Cherokee corn goddess.
||The motion resulting from stresses that cause or tend to
cause contiguous parts of a body to slide relatively to each
|shield volcano --
||A broad volcanic cone with gentle slopes constructed of successive
nonviscous, mostly basaltic, lava flows.
||In Scandinavian mythology, the grain goddess renowned for
her long golden hair. Mate of the thunder god Thor.
||Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X- Band Synthetic Aperture
Radar. An instrument that performs detailed observations of Earth
at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions.
||A landslide that results from the downward sliding of rock
debris as a single mass, usually with a backward rotation relative
to the slope along which the movement takes place.
||Angeline Stickney (1830-1892) The wife of Asaph Hall, known
for her persistent encouragement of her husband as he strove
to and eventually succeeded in the discovery of the satellites
||An upper portion of a planetary atmosphere, above the troposphere
and below the ionosphere, characterized by relatively uniform
temperature and horizontal winds.
||Relating to the deformation of the crust of a moon or planet,
the forces involved in or producing such deformation, and the
||Structural deformation, especially folding and faulting.
||The line separating the illuminated and unilluminated parts
of a celestial body; the dividing line between day and night
as observed from a distance.
||Belonging to the class of planets that are similar to the
Earth in density and composition (i.e. Mercury, Venus, and Mars).
||In Greek mythology, a sea goddess.
||In the Bible, a land at the western extremity of the known
world. Thought to be a region in modern-day Spain.
||Pre-Hellenic goddess of light, mother of the dawn. In Greek
mythology, mother of Helios (the Sun) and Eos (the Dawn).
||In Greek mythology, Titans were the firstborn children of
Uranus (the sky) and Gaea (the Earth). The ruler of the Titans
was Cronos, whose Roman name is Saturn.
||In William Shakespeare's A Midsummer Night's Dream, the queen
of the fairies.
||The shape and form of the surface of a planet.
||In Greek mythology, merman, half-man, half-fish. Son of Poseidon
||A long linear depression.
||In Alexander Pope's poem "The Rape of the Lock",
a "dusky, melancholy sprite".
||Planet seventh in order from the sun. In Greek mythology,
god of the sky, mate of the goddess of the Earth, and father
of the Titans.
||In William Shakespeare's Much Ado About Nothing, the attendant
||In Norse mythology, Odin's hall, where he received the souls
of slain warriors.
||Planet second in order from the sun. In Roman mythology,
goddess of love (Greek name, Aphrodite).
||An opening or fissure in a planet's surface through which
volcanic material erupts.
||In Northern European / Arctic mythology, a forest goddess.
||A measure of resistance to flow.
|volcanic rock --
||Rock formed by eruption onto a planet's surface.